hinton_no5.gif Hinton Scholars Student Tutoring Group 5

School: Kennedy School
grp4-teacher-capodagli.jpgAP Bio Teacher: Mr. Capodagli
grp5_hinton17_jdeas.jpgTutor: Joseph Deas
Rudy Alvares
Angel Colon
Jimmy Nguyen
Jasmine Parker
Dahiana Reyes

Millenia Saenz
Nicole Tang
Laury Teneus
Karyme Veliz-Gomez


LABORATORY 1 - Enzyme Catalysis
Thursday, October 13, 2016
TMEC 328 All students: Tutors join students in the lab.
Labs: 343 & 344

EM Kennedy Students! It is Mr. Joe Deas. I have tips for you when for designing your experiment today.
TIP #1: Hypothesis vs. prediction
A hypothesis is a testable, proposed explanation for a phenomenon, and provides a basis for further investigation. Example: "An enzyme's ability to increase the rate of a reaction is affected by the pH of its environment." A prediction is the expected outcome of the experiment. "If I run separate enzymatic reactions in a buffer of pH 3, 5, 7, and 9, the rate of reaction will vary significantly among these treatments."
TIP #2: Changing one or more variables per test
If you change variables in the same test (e.g., pH and temperature), how can you be sure to say whether changing variable #1, variable #2, or both had an effect on your result?
TIP #3: Factors that affect enzyme activity
Think about where you might find enzymes. What is the environment of an enzyme like, and how might it vary among different types of enzymes? Do you know anything about the substrate and the environmental factors (besides the presence of enzymes) that may affect its decomposition?

LABORATORY 2 - Photosynthesis
Thursday, November 10, 2016
TMEC Tutoring room: 115
Labs: 343 & 344

EM Kennedy Students! REMEMBER THAT YOU HAVE ACCESS TO THE WIKI AT ALL TIMES. Read about the activity you will be doing before coming to lab. It make things WAY easier for you, and you will not arrive and leave confused.

Please read more about the following Parts of your lab activities:
Part 1 is about observing different pigments plant cells might use to capture light energy - these pigments are not all green...
Part 2 is about figuring out how we can test whether plant cells are capturing light energy, and how FAST they are doing it.
Part 3 is about predicting the many ways you can screw around with a plant cell's ability to capture light energy.

Take 30 minutes to read and watch short videos about the lab:

What Big Ideas does this lab address? All, none, or some? Why?

LABORATORY 3 - Cellular Respiration
Thursday, December 8, 2016
TMEC Tutoring room: 115
TMEC Learning Studio 328 for Lab

Hello Dahiana, Rudy, Angel, Jimmy, Jasmine, Millenia, Nicole, Laury, and Karyme,

I have told Robert Simpson that I will not be in today. My wife and I have been not doing too well and I think it is best if I rest and not spread whatever this is to you. Below, I have distilled today's tutor session to the message below. Feel free to email me if you have questions:



What does it mean to be alive? Fighting off predators, taking care of offspring, chewing food - every single movement or thought of an organism requires good organ functioning (brain, bones, muscles, intestine). But remember, every organ is composed of trillions of tiny cells all working together. Flex your arm. How do you think you did that? Ultimately, when your muscles contracted, complex chemical and electrical signals were passed among the matrix of cells and proteins that compose the muscle, bone, skin, tendon, and so on. This signaling alone requires energy, let alone the movements of cells or cell divisions that took place within the muscle of your arm. But where does this so-called "energy" come from?

It comes in the form of something called ATP. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a molecule made of a smaller molecule called adenosine, with three phosphate groups attached to it:


The bonds between two of the phosphate groups just happen to have a lot of energy stored there. This "energy" is not easy to visualize, but just know that releasing it (using an enzyme to breaking ATP into ADP and a phosphate) literally allows this energy to just flow to where it is needed - to move a cell from one point to another, to move molecules around, to help an enzyme catalyze a chemical reaction, to send chemical or electrical signals between muscle cells, ANYTHING!

This ATP is produced by cellular respiration. You should know this......

ATP is produced by the process of cellular respiration. Cellular respiration is split up into two categories: aerobic respiration (oxygen is present) and anaerobic respiration (oxygen is not present).
The basic chemical reactions for respiration:
Aerobic: C6H12O6(Glucose) + 6 O2(Oxygen) --> 6 CO2 (Carbon Dioxide) + 6 H2O (Water)
Anaerobic - C6H12O6 (Glucose) --> 2 C3H6O3 (Lactic Acid)
Aerobic respiration has the following steps:
- glycolysis - a chain of reactions in which glucose is converted to pyruvate (in the cytoplasm of cells)
- link reaction - conversion of pyruvate to acetyl coenzyme A and carbon dioxide (in the cytoplasm of cells)
- citric acid cycle - acetyl coenzyme A is used to reduce NAD to NADH, which is an electron carrier, waste products of H2O and CO2 are also produced (in the mitochondrial matrix)
- electron transport chain - final stage in which electron carriers produced throughout the cycle are essentially used to create 36 ATP (The bodies energy currency)


OK, so plants are also organisms, correct? They are made of trillions of cells, and those cells also need to undergo cellular respiration to convert chemical energy into ATP. Think about the different life stages of an organism. Humans start from embryos - what about plants? What do you think a seed is? Think about dry beans or peas just sitting in those bins at the supermarket. Black eyed peas, mung beans, pinto beans, black beans - prior to cooking, are any of these taking in oxygen and producing carbon dioxide? Are they alive? Are they using energy?

In today's lab, you will answer that question. You will:

- compare the cellular respiration rates between germinated seeds and ungerminated seeds

- determine whether different environmental factors can affect the rate of cellular respiration - DESIGN YOUR OWN EXPERIMENT!
+ amount of light?
+ temperature?
+ amount of water?
+ concentration of salt?

- compare the cellular respiration rates between a cricket and a mealworm

THOROUGHLY READ THE PROCEDURE BEFORE STARTING ANYTHING. Send a reply to this email if you have questions.

Good luck!
- Joe

LABORATORY 4 - Transpiration

Thursday, January 12, 2017
TMEC Tutoring room: TBA

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LABORATORY 5 - DNA Analysis with PCR & Gel Electrophoresis
Thursday, February 2, 2017
TMEC Tutoring room: TBA

{Tutor please INSERT content here for LAB5.}

LABORATORY 6 - Transformation
Thursday, March 9, 2017
TMEC Tutoring room: TBA

{Tutor please INSERT content here for LAB6.}